1. Abu ‘Iyadh al-Tunisi, “Opening Statement at the Ansar al-Sharia Forum,” May 21, 2011.
  2. Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Waqafat ma’ thamrat al-jihad, Minbar al-Tawhid wa-l- Jihad, 2004; and ‘Umar ‘Abd alHakim (Abu Mus’ab alSuri), Mulahazat hawla al-tajriba
    al-jihadiyya fi Suriyya. Peshawar, May 1991
  3. Aaron Y. Zelin, “Maqdisi’s Disciples in Libya and Tunisia,” Foreign Policy’s Middle East
    Channel, November 14, 2012.
  4. Lorenzo Vidino, “Sharia4: From Confrontational Activism to Militancy,” Perspectives
    on Terrorism 9, no. 2 (2015).
  5. al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghrib, “Journalistic Encounter with the Director of al-
    Andalus Media Foundation,” al-Andalus Media Foundation, April 18, 2013.
  6. Marion Boulby, “The Islamic Challenge: Tunisia Since Independence,” Third World Quarterly 10, no. 2, Islam & Politics (April 1988): 590–614; Nikki R. Keddie, “The Islamist Movement in Tunisia,” Maghreb Review 1, no. 1 (1986): 26–39; Bruce Maddy‐Weitzman, “The Islamic Challenge in North Africa,” Terrorism and Political Violence 8, no. 2 (June 1996): 171–88; Susan Waltz, “Islamist Appeal in Tunisia,” Middle East Journal 40, no. 4 (Autumn 1986): 651–70; and Susan E. Waltz, “The Islamists Challenge in Tunisia,” Journal of Arab Affairs 3 (1984): 99–105.
  7. Anne Wolf, Political Islam in Tunisia: The History (London: Hurst, 2017); and Rory
    McCarthy, Inside Tunisia’s al-Nahda: Between Politics and Preaching (Cambridge:
    Cambridge University Press, 2018).
  8. Alaya Allani, “The Islamists in Tunisia Between Confrontation and Participation:
    1980–2008,” Journal of North African Studies 14, no. 2 (June 2009): 257.
  9. Francesco Cavatorta and Fabio Merone, “Moderation Through Exclusion? The Journey of the Tunisian Ennahda from Fundamentalist to Conservative Party,” Democratization 20, no. 5 (August 2013): 857.
  10. Anne Wolf, “An Islamist ‘Renaissance?’ Religion and Politics in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia,” Journal of North African Studies 18, no. 4 (September 2013): 560.
  11. Khaled Elgindy, “The Rhetoric of Rashid Ghannushi,” Arab Studies Journal 3, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 101–19; and Abdullah Saeed, “Rethinking Citizenship Rights of Non‐ Muslims in an Islamic State: Rashid al‐Ghannūshi’s Contribution to the Evolving Debate,” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 10, no. 3 (October 1999): 307–23.
  12. Rikke Hostrup Haugbølle, “New Expressions of Islam in Tunisia: An Ethnographic Approach,” Journal of North African Studies 20, no. 3 (2015): 319–35.
  13. Stefano M. Torelli, “The Multi-Faceted Dimensions of Tunisian Salafism,” in Salafism After the Arab Awakening: Contending with People’s Power, ed. by Francesco Cavatorta and Fabio Merone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 159.
  14. Fabio Merone and Francesco Cavatorta, “Salafist mouvance and sheikh-ism in the Tunisian Democratic Transition,” Centre for International Studies, Dublin City University, Working Paper no. 7 (2012).
  15. Stefano M. Torelli, Fabio Merone, and Francesco Cavatorta, “Salafism in Tunisia: Chal- lenges and Opportunities for Democratization,” Middle East Policy 19, no. 4 (Winter 2012): 140–54.
  16. Francesco Cavatorta, “Salafism, Liberalism, and Democratic Learning in Tunisia,” Journal of North African Studies 20, no. 5 (2015): 770–83.
  17. Monica Marks, “Youth Politics and Tunisian Salafism: Understanding the Jihadi Cur- rent,” Mediterranean Politics 18, no. 1 (March 2013): 104–11.
  18. John Horgan, The Psychology of Terrorism, 2nd ed. (Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge, 2014).
  19. Alison Pargeter, “North African Immigrants in Europe and Political Violence,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, no. 8 (December 2006): 731–47.
  20. Alison Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” in Islamist Radicalisation in North Africa:
    Politics and Process, ed. by George Joffe, 71–94 (Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge, 2011).
  21. Marc Lynch, “The New Salafi Politics,” in Arab Uprisings: The New Salafi Politics,
    POMEPS Studies, no. 2 (October 16, 2012).
  22. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross and Tara Vassefi, “Perceptions of the ‘Arab Spring’ Within
    the Salafi-Jihadi Movement,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 35, no. 12 (2012): 831–48; and Donald Holbrook, “Al-Qaeda’s Response to the Arab Spring,” Perspectives on Terrorism 6, no. 6 (2012).
  23. William F. McCants, “Al Qaeda’s Challenge: The Jihadists’ War with Islamist Demo- crats,” Foreign Affairs 90, no. 5 (September/October 2011).
  24. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, “Al-Qaeda Is Winning,” Atlantic, September 8, 2011.
  25. Alex S. Wilner, “Opportunity Costs or Costly Opportunities? The Arab Spring, Osama Bin Laden, and Al-Qaeda’s African Affiliates,” Perspectives on Terrorism 5, no. 3–4
    (2011): 50–62.
  26. Shiraz Maher and Peter R. Neumann, Al-Qaeda at the Crossroads: How the Terror
    Group Is Responding to the Loss of Its Leaders & the Arab Spring (International Centre
    for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, August 2012), 7 and 15.
  27. Clinton Watts, “What If There Is No Al-Qaeda? Preparing for Future Terrorism,” Foreign Policy Research Institute, E-Notes, July 2012.
  28. Leah Farrall, “Some Quick Thoughts on Reports Abu Yahya al-Libi Has Been Killed,”
    All Things Counterterrorism (blog), June 6, 2012.
  29. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross and Amichai Magen, “The Jihadist Governance Dilemma,”
    Washington Post, July 18, 2014.
  30. Brian Fishman, Fourth Generation Governance: Sheikh Tamimi Defends the Islamic State of Iraq (West Point, N.Y.: Combating Terrorism Center, Harmony Program, March 23, 2007).
  31. Brian Fishman, Dysfunction and Decline: Lessons Learned from Inside Al‐Qa‘ida in Iraq (West Point, N.Y.: Combating Terrorism Center, Harmony Project, March 16, 2009).
  32. Brian Fishman, Redefining the Islamic State: The Fall and Rise of Al-Qaeda in Iraq (Washington, D.C.: New America Foundation, National Security Studies Program Policy Paper, August 2011).
  33. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, “The Deadly Cycle of Terror That Has Iraq and Syria in Its Grip,” Spectator, June 21, 2014.
  34. Aaron Y. Zelin, “The ISIS Guide to Building An Islamic State,” Atlantic, June 13, 2014; and Aaron Y. Zelin, “The Islamic State’s Territorial Methodology,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Research Notes, no. 29 (January 2016).
  35. Twitter discussion between ShamiWitness and Marwan-el-Tounisi.
  36. Rukmini Callimachi, “Yemen Terror Boss Left Blueprint for Waging Jihad,” Associated Press, August 9, 2013.
  37. Callimachi, “Yemen Terror Boss.”
  38. Abu Zubayr ‘Adil Bin ‘Abd Allah al-Abab, “Gains and Benefits of Control Over Parts
    of Abyan and Shabwah,” Minbar al-Tawhid wa-l-Jihad, July 7, 2012.
  39. Christopher Anzalone, “Insurgency, Governance, and Legitimacy in Somalia: A Reassessment of Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahideen, its Rhetoric & Divisions,” al-Wasat,
    December 6, 2010.
  40. Robin Simcox, “Ansar al-Sharia and Governance in Southern Yemen,” Current Trends
    in Islamic Ideology 14 (January 2013).
  41. Aaron Y. Zelin, “Jihadi Soft Power in Tunisia: Ansar al-Shari’ah’s Convoy Provides
    Aid to the Town of Haydrah in West Central Tunisia,” al-Wasat, February 21, 2012.
  42. Marc Sageman, Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008), 132.
  43. Sageman, Leaderless Jihad, 133.
  44. Bruce Hoffman, “The Myth of Grass-Roots Terrorism: Why Osama bin Laden Still Matters,” Foreign Affairs 87, no. 3 (May/June 2008).
  45. Hoffman, “The Myth of Grass-Roots Terrorism.”
  46. Bruce Hoffman, “The Leaderless Jihad’s Leader: Why Osama Bin Laden Mattered,”
    Foreign Affairs, May 13, 2011.
  47. Eliane Tschaen Barbieri and Jytte Klausen, “Al Qaeda’s London Branch: Patterns of
    Domestic and Transnational Network Integration,” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism
    35, no. 6 (June 2012): 427.
  48. Barbieri and Klausen, “Al Qaeda’s London Branch.”
  49. Peter Neumann, Ryan Evans, and Raffaello Pantucci, “Locating Al Qaeda’s Center of
    Gravity: The Role of Middle Managers,” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 34, no. 11
    (November 2011): 829.
  50. Neumann, Evans, and Pantucci, “Locating Al Qaeda’s Center of Gravity,” 828.
  51. Neumann, Evans, and Pantucci, “Locating Al Qaeda’s Center of Gravity,” 829.
  52. John Gerring, “Mere Description,” British Journal of Political Science 42, no. 4 (October 2012): 721–46.
  53. Max Besbris and Shamus Khan, “Less Theory. More Description,” Sociological Theory 35, no. 2 (2017).
  54. Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics, 3rd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 9.
  55. Carrie Rosefsky Wickham, Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 4.
  56. Quintan Wiktorowicz, ed., Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
  57. Quinn Mecham, Institutional Origins of Islamist Political Mobilization (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), 15.
  58. Charles Tilly, Democracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
  59. Erica Chenoweth, “Terrorism and Democracy,” Annual Review of Political Science 16
    (2013): 355–78.
  60. Donna della Porta and Mario Diani, Social Movements: An Introduction, 2nd ed.
    (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006); Charles Tilly, Contentious Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006); Sidney Tarrow, The New Transnational Activism (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005); Doug McAdam, John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald, eds., Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); and Tarrow, Power in Movement; and Jeff Goodwin and James M. Jasper, eds., The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).
  61. della Porta and Diani, Social Movements, 31.
  62. Tarrow, Power in Movement, 195–214.
  63. To look at the Freedom House Reports more in full, see
    /report/freedom-world/2011/tunisia, /2012/tunisia,, https://, and /report/freedom-world/2015/tunisia.
  64. McAdam, McCarthy, and Zald, Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, 3.
  65. Wickham, Mobilizing Islam, 8.
  66. Heather S. Gregg, “Religious Resources and Terrorism,” Numen 65, no. 2–3 (2018).
  67. Robert D. Benford and David A. Snow, ‘‘Framing Processes and Social Movements:
    An Overview and Assessment,’’ Annual Review of Sociology 26 (2000): 615.
  68. “Letter to Mullah Mohammed ‘Omar from Usama bin Ladin,” June 5, 2002. Located in the United States Military Academy’s Combatting Terrorism Center’s online Har-
    mony Database, Document #: AFGP-2002-600321.
  69. Jeffry R. Halverson, H. L. Goodall Jr., and Steven R. Corman, Master Narratives of
    Islamist Extremism (New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2011), 13.
  70. Michael Page, Lara Challita, and Harris, Alistair, “Al Qaeda in the Arabian Penin-
    sula: Framing Narratives and Prescriptions,” Terrorism and Political Violence 23, no. 2
    (February 2011): 150–72.
  71. Thomas Hegghammer, “Why Terrorists Weep,” Paul Wilkinson Memorial Lecture,
    University of St. Andrews, April 16, 2015, / .pdf.
  72. Adam Dolnik, “Conducting Field Research on Terrorism: A Brief Primer,” Perspectives on Terrorism 5, no. 2 (2011): 31–32.
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