2. A Scattered Group with a Less-Than-Perfect Image

  1. David Collier, “Understanding Process Tracing,” PS: Political Science & Politics 44, no. 4 (October 2011): 823.
  2. Collier, “Understanding Process Tracing,” 824.
  3. Fahd al-Qahtani, Ziljal Juhayman fi al-Makkah (London: Munazzamat al-Thawra al- Islamiyya fi al-Jazira al-Arabiyya, 1987), 23.
  4. James Bruce, “Arab Veterans of the Afghan War,” Jane’s Intelligence Review 7, no. 4 (April 1995); and Imtiaz Hussein, “Osama Prepares List of Arab Martyrs of Afghan Jihad,” Frontier Post, May 24, 2000.
  5. ‘Umar ‘Abd al-Hakim (Abu Mus’ab al-Suri), Da’wat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah al- ‘Alamiyyah (2004), 756–59. Al-Suri further explained that Tunisians again failed to establish an organization in Sudan and on its return to Afghanistan in 1996. More- over, in 1995, one of the GIA’s founding members, Qa’iri Sa’id, attempted to expand its writ by bringing a number of the North African jihadi movements together, includ- ing calling for the Tunisians to establish the Tunisian Islamic Fighting Group à la the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group. Similar to the prior attempts in Afghanistan to band Tunisians together into an organization, this too failed. Alison Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” ed. George Joffé, Islamist Radicalisation in North Africa: Politics and Process (New York: Routledge, 2012), 77.
  6. Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” 76–77.
  7. Most from Tunisia and North Africa in general did not start to come until after 1987– 88: Anthony Davis, “Foreign Combatants in Afghanistan,” Jane’s Intelligence Review 5, no. 7 (July 1993).
  8. Hamad al-Qatari, “From Stories of the Arab Martyrs #40: ‘Abd al-Hadi al-Tunisi”.
  9. Qatari, “From Stories of the Arab Martyrs #40.”
  10. Abu Ja’afar al-Masri al-Qandahari, Memoirs of the Arab-Afghans (Cairo: Dar al- Sharuq, 2002), 232.
  11. Qandahari, Memoirs of the Arab-Afghans, 261–62.
  12. Qandahari, Memoirs of the Arab-Afghans, 115, 269.
  13. Mohamed Mokeddem, Les Afghans Algériens: De la Djamaâ À la Qa’îda (Alger: ANEP, 2002). Ahmad would later be imprisoned in Algeria in 1993. While there are no specific details about it, due to his prior experiences it is quite possible he got caught up with the insurgency in the Algerian civil war.
  14. al-Bunyan al-Marsus, no. 16–17 (Spring 1987), 35.
  15. Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” 77.
  16. “Saudi-Owned Al-Arabiya Deletes Story on ‘Erdoğan’s Ties with Warlords’ amid Gulf Crisis,” Turkish Minute, June 10, 2017; “Erdogan, Ghannouchi Ties with Hekmatyar Show Islamists’ Links with Warlords,” Al-Arabiya, June 9, 2017.
  17. Anne Wolf, Political Islam in Tunisia: The History (London: Hurst, 2017), 93–94.
  18. Ahmad Muaffaq Zaidan, The “Afghan Arabs” Media at Jihad (Islamabad: ABC Print- ers, 1999), 61–64; and Barnett R. Rubin, “Arab Islamists in Afghanistan,” in Political Islam: Revolution, Radicalism, or Reform?, ed. by John L. Esposito, 179–206 (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1997), 182–83.
  19. al-Bunyan al-Marsus, no. 18 (February 1988): 43–48; and al-Bunyan al-Marsus, no. 19 (March 1988): 44.
  20. al-Bunyan al-Marsus, no. 16–17 (Spring 1987), 35.
  21. ‘Abd Allah ‘Azzam, ‘Ashaq al-Hur, 7–9.
  22. “Tunis tajud bi-awal shahid a’iyaha ‘ala ardh Afghanistan al-mujahidah: al-shahid Abu ‘Uqbah,” Majallat al-Jihad, no. 20 (1986): 20–21.
  23. Mustafa Hamid and Leah Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan (London: Hurst, 2015), 90.
  24. Basil Muhammad, Safahat min Sajil al-Ansar al-Arab fi Afghanistan (Riyadh: Lajnat al-birr al-Islamiyya, 1992), 199.
  25. Muhammad, Safahat min Sajil al-Ansar al-Arab fi Afghanistan, 176–77.
  26. Muhammad, Safahat min Sajil al-Ansar al-Arab fi Afghanistan, 90.
  27. Muhammad, Safahat min Sajil al-Ansar al-Arab fi Afghanistan, 92.
  28. Muhammad, Safahat min Sajil al-Ansar al-Arab fi Afghanistan, 194.
  29. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 166–69.
  30. Davis, “Foreign Combatants in Afghanistan.”
  31. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 155, 161–62.
  32. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 164–65.
  33. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 170.
  34. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 140.
  35. Mustafa Hamid, al-Hamaqah al-Kubra aw harb al-mu’iz, August 11, 1997, 4.
  36. Fadl Harun, The War Against Islam: Fadil Harun’s Story, Markaz Dirasat Qidhaya al- ‘Alam al-Islami, vol. 1 (February 26, 2009), 200.
  37. Wisam Fu’ad, “al-Afghan al-‘arab bayna wahdat al-manhaj al-tarbuwi wa taditid al- manarhij al-harakiyyah,” Mirkaz al-Mustaqbil Li-l-Dirasat wa-l-Abhath, June 2000.
  38. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 242.
  39. Harun, The War Against Islam, 467.
  40. “In the Hearts of Green Birds: Stories of Foreign Mujahidin Killed in Bosnia” (Azzam Publications, 1996).
  41. Harun, The War Against Islam, 302 and 601.
  42. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 204.
  43. Harun, The War Against Islam, 200.
  44. Hamid, al-Hamaqah al-Kubra aw harb al-mu’iz.
  45. Alison Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad: Radical Islam in Europe (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 2008), 113; and Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” 77.
  46. Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” 77.
  47. Mehdi Mabrouk, “Tunisia: The Radicalization of Religious Policy,” ed. George Joffé, Islamist Radicalisation in North Africa: Politics and Process (New York: Routledge, 2012), 56.
  48. Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” 77.
  49. Mohamed Ali Harrath’s official Facebook page.
  50. Catherine Mayer, “Tunisian Elections: From Yesterday’s Most Wanted to Tomorrow’s Leaders,” Time, October 21, 2011.
  51. Mayer, “Tunisian Elections.”
  52. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, “Patterns of Global Terrorism 1995,” April 1996.
  53. Ahmad Nazif, “Tunis: al-Salafiyya wa Ikhwatuha al-Halaqa al-Ula: al-Salafiyya al- Ilmiyya wa-l-Harakiyya,” Taqadoumiya, January 23, 2012.
  54. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, “Patterns of Global Terrorism 1995.”
  55. Christopher Harmon, Andrew Pratt, and Sebastian Gorka, Toward a Grand Strategy Against Terrorism (New York: McGraw Hill Professional, 2010), 352.
  56. Sean K. Anderson and Stephen Sloan, Historical Dictionary of Terrorism (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2009), 325.
  57. Wolf, Political Islam in Tunisia, 123.
  58. Western Jihadists 1993–Present: An Archive and Database Charting the Evolution of Jihadi-inspired Terrorist Networks and Recruitment in Western States. Principal Investigator: Jytte Klausen. Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis University.
  59. Thomas Hegghammer, Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism Since 1979 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 48–49.
  60. Lorenzo Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe: The New Battleground of International Jihad (New York: Prometheus, 2006), 216, 219.
  61. Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 34–39. The other group was led by al-Zubayr al- Hayli, who was also a Saudi and Afghan veteran.
  62. Evan Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe: The Afghan-Bosnian Network (Oxford: Berg, 2004), 17–18.
  63. Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 60.
  64. Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 19.
  65. These documents were obtained from Bosnian government records by J. M. Berger for research on the documentary Sarajevo Ricochet (Febris Film, 2010). Berger emailed me a picture of a pie chart breakdown on June 3, 2013.
  66. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe; and Thomas Hegghammer, “The Rise of Mus- lim Foreign Fighters: Islam and the Globalization of Jihad,” International Security 35, no. 3 (Winter 2010/11): 53–94.
  67. “Daily Says 741 Afro-Asians Who Pose Security Risk Have Bosnian Citizenship,” BBC News, February 4, 2015.
  68. Hamad al-Qatari, “From Stories of the Arab Martyrs #72: Abu al-Shahid al-Tunis.”
  69. Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 35.
  70. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 198.
  71. Evan Kohlmann, “Abu el-Ma’ali,” Global Terror Alert, August 29, 2005.
  72. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 198.
  73. “Suspects in Murder Attempt Against Pope Still Have Bosnian Citizenship—Daily,” BBC News, February 4, 2015.
  74. Aimen Dean, Paul Cruikshank, and Tim Lister, Nine Lives: My Time as MI6’s Top Spy Inside al-Qaeda (London: Oneworld, 2018), 149.
  75. Dean, Cruikshank, and Lister, Nine Lives, 149.
  76. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 64 and 89.
  77. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 125, 131, 135, and 137. Operation Black Lion was the first of the three battles, but there are no public records that Tunisians were involved, although it is quite possible that they were considering their involvement in the other two.
  78. Hegghammer, Jihad in Saudi Arabia, 48–49; and Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 23.
  79. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 23.
  80. John Schindler, Unholy Terror: Bosnia, al-Qa’ida, and the Rise of Global Jihad (St. Paul, Minn.: Zenith, 2007), 267–68.
  81. Schindler, Unholy Terror, 267–68.
  82. Guido W. Steinberg, German Jihad: On the Internationalization of Islamist Terrorism (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013), 64.
  83. Western Jihadists 1993–Present.
  84. Dean, Cruikshank, and Lister, Nine Lives, 78.
  85. For more background on Islamism in Algeria and the evolution of the war from the FIS to the GIA, see these two books: Michael Willis, The Islamist Challenge in Algeri (New York: New York University Press, 1999); and Camille Tawil, al-Harakah al- Islamiyah al-musallahah fi al-Jaza’ir: Min al-Inqadh ila al-Jama’ah (Beirut: Dar al- Nahar, 1998).
  86. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 166–67.
  87. “The Knight Abu Fatah Dismounts After a Long Jihad: Condolences on His Death and His Brothers upon the Land of Tunisia,” Ifriqiyyah al-Muslimah, July 11, 2015.
  88. Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 83 and 85.
  89. Omar Nasiri, Inside the Jihad: My Life With al-Qaeda (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 92.
  90. Anneli Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb: The Transnationalisation of Domestic Terror- ism,” Institute for Security Studies, ISS Monograph Series, no. 144 (June 2008), 149.
  91. Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 92.
  92. Frida Dahmani, “Tunisie: Abou Iyadh, l’ennemi public numéro un,” Jeune Afrique, October 1, 2002.
  93. Asim Qureishi, “Interview with the Wife of Sayfullah Ben Hassine—Tunisian Politi- cal Prisoner Sentenced to 60 Years by Ousted President Ben Ali,” Cage Prisoners, January 19, 2011.
  94. Brynjar Lia, Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of al-Qaida Strategist Abu Mus’ab al- Suri (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), 182.
  95. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 185.
  96. Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 265.
  97. Sean O’Neill and Daniel McGory, The Suicide Factory: Abu Hamza and the Finsbury Park Mosque (London: Harper Perennial, 2006), 134.
  98. Abu Qatadah al-Filistini, “Important and Urgent Message to Ansar al-Shari’ah in Tunisia,” al-Bayyariq Foundation for Media, January 20, 2014.
  99. Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 272–73.
  100. Camille Tawil, Brothers in Arms: The Story of al-Qa’ida and the Arab Jihadists (Lon- don: Saqi Books, 2010), 134–35.
  101. al-Jama’ah al-Salafiyyah Li-l-Da’wah wa-l-Qital, “al-Wahdah: al-Jama’ah Rahmah,” September 16, 1998.
  102. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, “Patterns of Global Terrorism 1998,” April 1999.
  103. Western Jihadists 1993–Present.
  104. Western Jihadists 1993–Present.
  105. Western Jihadists 1993–Present.
  106. Western Jihadists 1993–Present.
  107. Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 42.
  108. Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 66; and Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 143.
  109. Jean-Charles Brisard, Zarqawi: The New Face of Al-Qaeda (New York: Other Press, 2005), 69.
  110. Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 135.
  111. Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 370.
  112. Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 219.
  113. Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 147; and “Apprehension of a Suspect of a Crime,” Indict- ment of Tarek Maaroufi, Essid Sami Ben Khemais, et al. Public Prosecutor’s Office, Dr. Stefano Dambruoso, Penal Proceeding No. 13016/99 RGNR (A4/DIGOS/sez, 3/C), Milan, Italy, April 2, 2001.
  114. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 229 and 231.
  115. Harun, The War Against Islam, 870.
  116. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 166–67.
  117. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 166–67.
  118. Raffaello Pantucci, “We Love Death as You Love Life”: Britain’s Suburban Terrorists (London: Hurst, 2015), 134.
  119. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 257–61.
  120. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 204–5.
  121. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 206.
  122. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 249.
  123. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 259–60.
  124. Brisard, Zarqawi, 69.
  125. Brisard, Zarqawi, 70.
  126. Brisard, Zarqawi, 71.
  127. Carlotta Gall and Eric Schmitt, “Jihadist from Tunisia Died in Strike in Libya, U.S. Official Says,” New York Times, July 2, 2015.
  128. Isaac J. Martin, “El poeta tunecino y ex reclutador de Al Qaeda en Molenbeek,” El Mundo, May 17, 2016.
  129. “Mohamed Ben Riadh Nasri,” The Guantánamo Docket, New York Times.
  130. Ashraf al-Tabib, “Qiyadi Salafi Jihadi Sayf Allah bin Hasin (Abu ‘Iyadh) yatahadath l-al-usubu’i: sir khatir wara’ ahadath Sijnan . . . al-Astul al-Sadis al-Amriki yurid iqama qa’idah tansat fiha,” al-Sabah, March 26, 2012.
  131. Scott Sayare, “The Ultimate Terrorist Factory Are French Prisons Incubating Extrem- ism?,” Harpers, January 2016.
  132. Hadi Yahmad, “Hiwar ma’ Sayf Allah bin Hasin (Abu ‘Iyadh),” Jaridat al-Haqa’iq al- Tunisiyyah, December 11, 2011.
  133. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 272.
  134. Martin, “El poeta tunecino y ex reclutador de Al Qaeda en Molenbeek.”
  135. Malikah al-Arud, Les soldats de lumière (2003), 10 and 71.
  136. Abdullah Anas, To the Mountains My Life in Jihad, from Algeria to Afghanistan, with Tam Hussein (London: Hurst, 2019), 246.
  137. Nasiri, Inside the Jihad, 93; and Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 163.
  138. The Guantánamo Docket, New York Times, last update June 13, 2015.
  139. “Lotfi Bin Ali,” The Guantánamo Docket, New York Times.
  140. “Adel Bin Ahmed Bin Ibrahim Hkiml,” The Guantánamo Docket, New York Times; and “Mohamed Ben Riadh Nasri,” The Guantánamo Docket.
  141. “Abdul Bin Mohammed Bin Abess Ourgy,” The Guantánamo Docket, New York Times.
  142. Western Jihadists 1993–Present; Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 162; Frazer Egerton, Jihad in the West: The Rise of Militant Salafism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 102–10; and Peter Bergen, The Osama bin Ladin I Know: An Oral History of al- Qaeda’s Leader (New York: Free Press, 2006), 269.
  143. Harun, The War Against Islam, 1,331.
  144. Harun, The War Against Islam, 278.
  145. Harun, The War Against Islam, 657; and “Ridah Bin Saleh al Yazidi,” The Guantánamo Docket, New York Times.
  146. al-Qaeda, “Resurgence Magazine #2,” al-Sahab Media, June 25, 2015.
  147. “Mohamed Ben Riadh Nasri,” The Guantánamo Docket.
  148. Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 226.
  149. “Spain Indicts Eight 9/11 Suspects,” CBS News, January 17, 2005.
  150. Thomas H. Kean, Lee Hamilton, and the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Com- mission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States (Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, 2004), 235 and 527.
  151. Nasser al-Bahri, Guarding Bin Laden: My Life in al-Qaeda: My Life in al-Qaeda (Lon- don: Thin Man Press, 2013), 185.
  152. Kean et al., The 9/11 Commission Report, 527.
  153. “Seeking Information: Abderraouf Jdey,” FBI’s Most Wanted List.
  154. Harun, The War Against Islam, 1,303.
  155. Bahri, Guarding Bin Laden, 88–89.
  156. Bahri, Guarding Bin Laden, 94–95.
  157. Harun, The War Against Islam, 1,303.
  158. Harun, The War Against Islam, 1,302.
  159. Harun, The War Against Islam, 254.
  160. Harun, The War Against Islam, 305.
  161. Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahidin, “Interview with Shaykh Mukhtar Abu al-Zubayr,” Radio al-Andalus, January 1, 2012.
  162. Ali Soufan, The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against Al-Qaeda (New York: Norton, 2011), 345.
  163. Soufan, The Black Banners, 545; Clint Watts, Jacob Shapiro, and Vahid Brown, al- Qa’ida’s (Mis)adventure’s in the Horn of Africa (West Point, N.Y.: Combating Terror- ism Center, July 2, 2007), 137–42.
  164. Harun, The War Against Islam, 556.
  165. Ali Soufan, Anatomy of Terror: From the Death of bin Laden to the Rise of the Islamic State (New York: Norton, 2017), 151.
  166. Abu ‘Ubaydah al-Maqdisi, “Shuhada’ fi zaman al-ghuraba,” al-Fajr Media, 2008.
  167. Maqdisi, “Shuhada’ fi zaman al-ghuraba.”
  168. Maqdisi, “Shuhada’ fi zaman al-ghuraba.”
  169. Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 44. For more background on al-Muwafaq Foundation, see “State Department Cables on Muwafaq Foundation,” September 16, 2010, IntelWire.
  170. Material on al-Ayadi is available on the Office of Foreign Assets Control website; “Security Council Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee Deletes Entry of Shafiq ben Mohamed ben Mohamed Al-Ayadi from Its List,” United Nations, October 17, 2011; and “Kadi Wins His Second ECJ Case Removing Him from the UN and EU Counter-Terrorist Sanctions Lists,” Brick Court Chambers, July 22, 2013.
  171. “QDe.090: Tunisian Combatant Group,” United Nation’s ISIL (Da’esh) & Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee Resolution 1267 List.
  172. Jeff Israely, “The Second Time Around,” Time, February 25, 2002.
  173. Western Jihadists 1993–Present.
  174. Martín, “El poeta tunecino y ex reclutador de Al Qaeda en Molenbeek.”
  175. Western Jihadists 1993–Present.
  176. “Blast at Tunisian Synagogue Kills Five,” BBC, April 11, 2002.
  177. French and Spanish court documents on the Djerba attack obtained by the author show that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was the mastermind behind the attack.
  178. Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), 189.
  179. Chris Hedges, “Tunisian Killed in Synagogue Blast Was Unlikely Convert to Militancy,” New York Times, June 9, 2002.
  180. Hedges, “Tunisian Killed in Synagogue Blast.”
  181. Harun, The War Against Islam, 1,092, 1,335; and David Malet, Foreign Fighters: Trans- national Identity in Civil Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 191.
  182. “Hassan Mohammed Ali Bin Attash,” The Guantánamo Docket, New York Times.
  183. Harun, The War Against Islam.
  184. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, November 8, 2006, Cour d’Appel de Paris, Tribunal de Grande Instance de Paris, Parquet du Procureur de la République, No. Parquet: P.02.107.3901/2, No. Instruction: 029/02/1432, p. 76.
  185. Bruce Crumley, “French Terror Conviction: Lesson for U.S.?” Time, February 6, 2009.
  186. Crumley, “French Terror Conviction: Lesson for U.S.?”
  187. Piotr Smolar, “De la Haute-Silésie à Médine, l’itinéraire d’un ‘haut responsable d’Al- Qaida’ arrêté en France En savoir plus sur,” Le Monde, July 12, 2005.
  188. Steinberg, German Jihad, 44–48; and French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 81–83. Shadi ‘Abd Allah himself met Ganczarski in Afghanistan in early 2000. Jama’at Tawhid wa-l-Jihad was the name of the group that Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi led before it became a part of AQ in October 2004 (and, subsequently, the Islamic State). Steinberg, German Jihad, 44–48.
  189. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 77, 91; and “German Terror Link: Djerba Bombing Trial Begins in Paris,” Der Spiegel, January 5, 2009.
  190. al-Bahri, Guarding bin Laden, 88–89.
  191. “German Terror Link: Djerba Bombing Trial Begins in Paris.”
  192. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 64.
  193. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 2, Senencia 20/2006, 11–12.
  194. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 64.
  195. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 68.
  196. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 68.
  197. “Deadly Attack Keeps World on Alert,” Guardian, September 3, 2002.
  198. David S. Cloud and Ian Johnson, “Hunt for al Qaeda Misses the Likes of Nizar Nawar,” Wall Street Journal, August 20, 2002; and Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 118.
  199. “Le kamikaze tunisien de Djerba avait bénéficié de l’aide de sa famille en France en savoir plus sur,” Le Monde, February 11, 2003.
  200. “LekamikazetunisiendeDjerba.”
  201. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, p. 115.
  202. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 2, Senencia 20/2006, 5.
  203. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 2, Senencia 20/2006, 12.
  204. AudienciaNacional,JuzgadoCentraldeInstrucciónno.2,Senencia20/2006,11.
  205. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 2, Senencia 20/2006, 11.
  206. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 2, Senencia 20/2006, 13–14.
  207. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 2, Senencia 20/2006, 15.
  208. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 2, Senencia 20/2006, 15.
  209. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 2, Senencia 20/2006, 15.
  210. Hedges, “Tunisian Killed in Synagogue Blast.”
  211. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 115.
  212. French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 115; and Cloud and Johnson, “Hunt for al Qaeda Misses the Likes of Nizar Nawar.”
  213. Ahmad Muwafiq al-Zaydan, “Tanzim qarib min ‘al-Qa’idah’ yutabna ‘amaliyyat kanis jerbah,” Al-Hayat, April 16, 2002.
  214. Zaydan, “Tanzim qarib min ‘al-Qa’idah’ yutabna ‘amaliyyat kanis jerbah.”
  215. “Tanzim al-qa‘ida yuwa‘id al-amrikiyyin,” BBC Arabic, June 23, 2012.
  216. Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 320.
  217. Joby Warick, Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS (New York: Doubleday, 2015), 65.
  218. Audiencia Nacional, Juzgado Central de Instrucción no. 6, “Sumario 20/2004,” November 7, 2006, 14.
  219. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 205–6.
  220. French Prosecution of the Casablanca Bombings, April 2, 2007, Cour d’Appel de Paris Tribunal de Grande Instance de Paris Parquet du Procureur de la Republique, No. Par- quet: P 01.253.3902/2, No. Instruction: 1417, p. 33.
  221. Fernando Reinares, ¡Matadlos!: Quién estuvo detrás del 11-M y por qué se atentó en España (Barcelona: Galaxia Gutenberg/Círculo de Lectores, 2014), 69–84.
  222. Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 143; Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 126; and Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 309.
  223. Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 143.
  224. Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 127.
  225. Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 309.
  226. Fernando Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” in The Evolution of the Global Terrorist Threat: From 9/11 to Osama bin Laden’s Death, ed. by Bruce Hoffman and Fernando Reinares, 29–60 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014), 46; and Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 201.
  227. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 138.
  228. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 137.
  229. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 144.
  230. Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 34.
  231. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 142; and Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 34.
  232. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 203–4.
  233. Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 207; Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 46; and Schindler, Unholy Terror, 297.
  234. Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 46.
  235. Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 33, 37.
  236. Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 41.
  237. Egerton, Jihad in the West, 102–3.
  238. Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 127.
  239. Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 139.
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