James Bruce, “Arab Veterans of the Afghan War,” Jane’s Intelligence Review 7, no. 4 (April 1995); and Imtiaz Hussein, “Osama Prepares List of Arab Martyrs of Afghan Jihad,” Frontier Post, May 24, 2000.
‘Umar ‘Abd al-Hakim (Abu Mus’ab al-Suri), Da’wat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah al-‘Alamiyyah (2004), 756–59. Al-Suri further explained that Tunisians again failed to establish an organization in Sudan and on its return to Afghanistan in 1996. More- over, in 1995, one of the GIA’s founding members, Qa’iri Sa’id, attempted to expand its writ by bringing a number of the North African jihadi movements together, includ- ing calling for the Tunisians to establish the Tunisian Islamic Fighting Group à la the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group. Similar to the prior attempts in Afghanistan to band Tunisians together into an organization, this too failed. Alison Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” ed. George Joffé, Islamist Radicalisation in North Africa: Politics and Process (New York: Routledge, 2012), 77.
Pargeter, “Radicalisation in Tunisia,” 76–77.
Most from Tunisia and North Africa in general did not start to come until after 1987– 88: Anthony Davis, “Foreign Combatants in Afghanistan,” Jane’s Intelligence Review 5, no. 7 (July 1993).
Mohamed Mokeddem, Les Afghans Algériens: De la Djamaâ À la Qa’îda (Alger: ANEP, 2002). Ahmad would later be imprisoned in Algeria in 1993. While there are no specific details about it, due to his prior experiences it is quite possible he got caught up with the insurgency in the Algerian civil war.
“Saudi-Owned Al-Arabiya Deletes Story on ‘Erdoğan’s Ties with Warlords’ amid Gulf Crisis,” Turkish Minute, June 10, 2017; “Erdogan, Ghannouchi Ties with Hekmatyar Show Islamists’ Links with Warlords,” Al-Arabiya, June 9, 2017.
Anne Wolf, Political Islam in Tunisia: The History (London: Hurst, 2017), 93–94.
Thomas Hegghammer, Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism Since 1979 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 48–49.
Lorenzo Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe: The New Battleground of International Jihad (New York: Prometheus, 2006), 216, 219.
Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 34–39. The other group was led by al-Zubayr al- Hayli, who was also a Saudi and Afghan veteran.
Evan Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe: The Afghan-Bosnian Network (Oxford: Berg, 2004), 17–18.
Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 60.
Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 19.
These documents were obtained from Bosnian government records by J. M. Berger for research on the documentary Sarajevo Ricochet (Febris Film, 2010). Berger emailed me a picture of a pie chart breakdown on June 3, 2013.
Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe; and Thomas Hegghammer, “The Rise of Mus- lim Foreign Fighters: Islam and the Globalization of Jihad,” International Security 35, no. 3 (Winter 2010/11): 53–94.
“Daily Says 741 Afro-Asians Who Pose Security Risk Have Bosnian Citizenship,” BBCNews, February 4, 2015.
Evan Kohlmann, “Abu el-Ma’ali,” Global Terror Alert, August 29, 2005.
Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 198.
“Suspects in Murder Attempt Against Pope Still Have Bosnian Citizenship—Daily,” BBC News, February 4, 2015.
Aimen Dean, Paul Cruikshank, and Tim Lister, Nine Lives: My Time as MI6’s Top SpyInside al-Qaeda (London: Oneworld, 2018), 149.
Dean, Cruikshank, and Lister, Nine Lives, 149.
Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 64 and 89.
Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 125, 131, 135, and 137. Operation Black Lion was the first of the three battles, but there are no public records that Tunisians were involved, although it is quite possible that they were considering their involvement in the other two.
Hegghammer, Jihad in Saudi Arabia, 48–49; and Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 23.
Kohlmann, al-Qaida’s Jihad in Europe, 23.
John Schindler, Unholy Terror: Bosnia, al-Qa’ida, and the Rise of Global Jihad (St. Paul, Minn.: Zenith, 2007), 267–68.
Schindler, Unholy Terror, 267–68.
Guido W. Steinberg, German Jihad: On the Internationalization of Islamist Terrorism (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013), 64.
For more background on Islamism in Algeria and the evolution of the war from the FIS to the GIA, see these two books: Michael Willis, The Islamist Challenge in Algeri (New York: New York University Press, 1999); and Camille Tawil, al-Harakah al- Islamiyah al-musallahah fi al-Jaza’ir: Min al-Inqadh ila al-Jama’ah (Beirut: Dar al- Nahar, 1998).
Hamid and Farrall, The Arabs at War in Afghanistan, 166–67.
Western Jihadists 1993–Present; Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 162; Frazer Egerton, Jihadin the West: The Rise of Militant Salafism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 102–10; and Peter Bergen, The Osama bin Ladin I Know: An Oral History of al- Qaeda’s Leader (New York: Free Press, 2006), 269.
“Spain Indicts Eight 9/11 Suspects,” CBS News, January 17, 2005.
Thomas H. Kean, Lee Hamilton, and the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Com- mission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States (Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, 2004), 235 and 527.
Nasser al-Bahri, Guarding Bin Laden: My Life in al-Qaeda: My Life in al-Qaeda (Lon- don: Thin Man Press, 2013), 185.
Bruce Crumley, “French Terror Conviction: Lesson for U.S.?” Time, February 6, 2009.
Crumley, “French Terror Conviction: Lesson for U.S.?”
Piotr Smolar, “De la Haute-Silésie à Médine, l’itinéraire d’un ‘haut responsable d’Al- Qaida’ arrêté en France En savoir plus sur,” Le Monde, July 12, 2005.
Steinberg, German Jihad, 44–48; and French Prosecution of the Djerba Bombings, 81–83. Shadi ‘Abd Allah himself met Ganczarski in Afghanistan in early 2000. Jama’at Tawhid wa-l-Jihad was the name of the group that Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi led before it became a part of AQ in October 2004 (and, subsequently, the Islamic State). Steinberg, German Jihad, 44–48.
Fernando Reinares, ¡Matadlos!: Quién estuvo detrás del 11-M y por qué se atentó en España (Barcelona: Galaxia Gutenberg/Círculo de Lectores, 2014), 69–84.
Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 143; Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 126; and Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 309.
Botha, “Terrorism in Maghreb,” 143.
Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad, 127.
Vidino, al-Qaeda in Europe, 309.
Fernando Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” in The Evolution of the GlobalTerrorist Threat: From 9/11 to Osama bin Laden’s Death, ed. by Bruce Hoffman and Fernando Reinares, 29–60 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014), 46; and Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 201.
Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 138.
Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 137.
Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 144.
Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 34.
Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 142; and Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 34.
Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 203–4.
Lia, Architect of Global Jihad, 207; Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 46; and Schindler, Unholy Terror, 297.
Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 46.
Reinares, “The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings,” 33, 37.